Emissions that arise from the direct operation of a company in owned or controlled facilities. The elements of emissions associated with Scope 1 are:
• On-site combustion: relating to boilers, furnaces or CHP plants.
• Fugitive emissions: leaks of gases mainly due to refrigeration or air conditioning operations.
• Of-site combustion: vehicle emissions as a result of the burning of fuel.
• Process emissions: any other emissions as a result of specific processes on a company’s controlled premises.
Indirect emissions that arise from a company’s purchased energy used in companies facilities. Scope 2 emissions are related to electricity generation and heat or steam generation where district heating is relevant.
All other indirect emissions are related to an organisation's activities and are usually the greatest source of emissions for a company. Scope 3 emissions cover raw materials, transportation, waste management, capital goods and employee activities. Split into two categories, of emissions that occur upstream and downstream of a company’s activities.
Relating these three scope emissions categories to a specific product that an organization produces means that a company can track its reduction strategies against another baseline type. Also, this allows the company to be transparent to consumers about a product's impact on the environment.